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Rosalind Franklin, a British biophysicist, was the first person to capture a photographic image while observing molecules using x-ray diffraction.
Galileo Galilei: Biography, Inventions & Other Facts
But without her permission, an estranged male colleague showed the photograph to competitors Watson and Crick, who stole the credit as their own. Countless lives have been lost at sea, as people have navigated the oceans for hundreds of years. The para-aramid synthetic fiber is five times stronger than steel. Jackson, a theoretical physicist, was the first black woman to be awarded a Ph. A version of this article previously appeared on One.
From the computer to an ice-cream maker, some of the most important discoveries and inventions by women. Photos: Flicker; Facebook; Flickr; T. Marie Curie: Theory of radioactivity Marie Curie. Photo: Getty Images. Nancy Johnson's invention. Retrieved March 22, United States Navy. Retrieved December 18, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels seized the opportunity created by Edison's public comments to enlist Edison's support. He agreed to serve as the head of a new body of civilian experts — the Naval Consulting Board — to advise the Navy on science and technology.
Electrical Review. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Beacon Press. He began to experiment with telescope-making , going so far as to grind and polish his own lenses.
His telescope allowed him to see with a magnification of eight or nine times. In comparison, spyglasses of the day only provided a magnification of three.
Tesla | Princeton University Press
It wasn't long before Galileo turned his telescope to the heavens. He was the first to see craters on the moon, he discovered sunspots, and he tracked the phases of Venus.
The rings of Saturn puzzled him, appearing as lobes and vanishing when they were edge-on — but he saw them, which was more than can be said of his contemporaries. Of all of his telescope discoveries, he is perhaps most known for his discovery of the four most massive moons of Jupiter, now known as the Galilean moons: Io , Ganymede , Europa and Callisto. When on January 8th, led by some fatality, I turned again to look at the same part of the heavens, I found a very different state of things, for there were three little stars all west of Jupiter, and nearer together than on the previous night.
These observations also established that there are not only three, but four, erratic sidereal bodies performing their revolutions around Jupiter. Galileo may also have made the first recorded studies of the planet Neptune, though he didn't recognize it as a planet. While observing Jupiter's moons in and , he recorded a nearby star whose position is not found in any modern catalogues.
In Galileo's lifetime, all celestial bodies were thought to orbit the Earth. Supported by the Catholic Church, teaching opposite of this system was declared heresy in This necessitated a trip to Washington, which he made on borrowed money, but he was unable to arouse any interest in the device. The Gold Indicator Company was a concern furnishing to its subscribers by telegraph the Stock Exchange prices of gold. The company's instrument was out of order. Pope , the partnership of Pope, Edison, and Company, the first firm of electrical engineers in the United States.
Not long afterward Thomas Edison released the invention which started him on the road to success. This was the improved stock ticker, and the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company paid him 40, dollars for it, more money than he had expected. Thomas Edison immediately set up a shop in Newark.
He improved the system of automatic telegraphy telegraph machine that was in use at that time and introduced it into England. He experimented with submarine cables and worked out a system of quadruplex telegraphy by which one wire was made to do the work of four. Gould had bought the Western Union, his only competition. But I never had any grudge against him because he was so able in his line, and as long as my part was successful the money with me was a secondary consideration.
When Gould got the Western Union I knew no further progress in telegraphy was possible, and I went into other lines. In fact, however, lack of money forced Edison to resume his work for the Western Union Telegraph Company. He invented a carbon transmitter and sold it to the Western Union for , dollars, paid in seventeen annual installments of 6, dollars.
He made a similar agreement for the same sum for the patent of the electro-motograph. He did not realize that these installments payments were not good business sense. He worked only upon inventions he could sell and sold them to get the money to meet the payrolls of his different shops. His first research was for a durable filament which would burn in a vacuum.
A series of experiments with a platinum wire and various refractory metals had unsatisfactory results.
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Many other substances were tried, even human hair. Edison concluded that carbon of some sort was the solution rather than a metal. Joseph Swan, an Englishman actually came to the same conclusion first. In October , after fourteen months of hard work and the expenditure of forty thousand dollars, a carbonized cotton thread sealed in one of Edison's globes was tested and lasted forty hours. A better filament was needed. Edison found it in carbonized strips of bamboo. Along with the Edison incandescent lamps, it was one of the wonders of the Paris Electrical Exposition of Installation in Europe and America of plants for electrical service soon followed.
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This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. You are here Doctors frequently prescribed morphine to women in those years to treat a variety of causes, and researchers believe that her symptoms could have been from morphine poisoning. Popular Now. A Cancer Story: Surviving the Odds.
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It is also provides valuable insights into the way in which innovation can be projected into the popular media and arouse the interest of financiers. Bowler, European Legacy. Carlson captures this extraordinary, contradictory life—inventor, futurist visionary, showman, and, at times, ranting narcissist. We get to see how Tesla scrambled like mad, built with ambition, and in his later efforts failed monumentally. Here is a book that guides us through this wild ride with empathy and without hagiography. This is the definitive study of his life and work.
Nye, University of Southern Denmark. Carlson's perspective as a historian—particularly a historian of technology—is indispensable for understanding Tesla's place in the rapidly changing American society of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
His style is engaging and accessible, and the book will clearly be of value to the historical community. Finn, curator emeritus, Smithsonian Institution.
This is the definitive work on Tesla that brings to light much new information about his life, his inventions, and the changing socioeconomic context in which he worked. Carlson has mined the primary sources to an unprecedented depth and breadth. The book is nothing less than extraordinary. Tesla W.
Illus: 75 halftones. Overview Author s Reviews 5. Bernard Carlson is professor of science, technology, and society in the School of Engineering and Applied Science and professor of history at the University of Virginia. Patrick McCray, Nature "Soundly footnoted, yet eminently readable, it provides a balanced examination of the man and his work, focusing particularly on Tesla's distinctive style of invention.
Misa, Science "A scholarly, critical, mostly illuminating study of the life and work of the great Serbian inventor. Wenaas, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine "[Readers] will certainly see this volume as an indispensable guide to one of the most fascinating yet controversial and misunderstood innovators of the modern era. Bowler, European Legacy "Carlson has written a serious, rigorous book grounded in the academic history of technology, but also a page-turner that any fan of Tesla will enjoy.
Nye, University of Southern Denmark "Most biographies of Tesla lack technical background and are uncritical and adulatory in their approach.
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